The Constitution had to be ratified by nine states to enter into force. The struggle for ratification has been long and difficult. The Constitution should be ratified by special ratification conventions and not by the state legislator. In the interest of maintaining power, states were opposed to the ratification of a stronger new central government. Those who supported ratification were described as federalists, while those who opposed it were considered anti-federalists. The federalists attacked the weaknesses of the articles of Confederation. On the other hand, the federalists also supported a House of Representatives with competent power. They acknowledged that the Constitution was not perfect, but they said it was much better than any other proposal. Three federalists – Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay – have written a series of essays entitled The Federalist Papers. These articles declared the Constitution and defended its provisions. The documents were intended for the State of New York, even though people across the country read them. The federalists defended the weakest point of the Constitution – the absence of a rights ballot – by suggesting that the current protection measures were sufficient and that Congress could propose changes at any time.
Anti-federalists like Patrick Henry attacked the Constitution and suggested it would lead to a dangerously powerful national government. One of the strongest arguments of the Antitif-dederliste was the absence of Bill of Rights in the Constitution. Many antive-dederlists were finally convinced by the arguments of the federalists. The Federal Convention forwarded the proposed constitution to the Federal Congress, which submitted it to the states for ratification at the end of September 1787. The Constitution immediately became the target of numerous articles and public letters from its opponents. Hamilton decided to launch a moderate and comprehensive defense and declaration of the proposed Constitution in response to anti-federalists, especially the people of New York. In “Federalist No. 1,” he wrote that the series would “give a satisfactory answer to all the objections that must arise, which seem to be right for your attention.” Hamilton recruited Madison and Jay for the project. Both Hamilton and Madison argued that the Constitution did not need a Bill of Rights, that it would create a “parchment barrier” that would limit the rights of the people rather than protect them.
But they finally made the concession and announced that they were ready to address the issue of the series of amendments that would become the Bill of Rights. Without this compromise, the Constitution might never have been ratified by the states. Federalist documents were written to support the ratification of the Constitution, especially in New York. One wonders if the authors have succeeded in this mission. Separate ratification procedures were organized in each state and the tests were not reliably printed outside of New York. In addition, some important states had already ratified the Constitution while the series was booming. While federalist documents certainly had some influence on their passage, other forces were also influential. In particular, the personal influence of known federalists such as Hamilton and Jay was an important factor in ratification agreements. The Senate rejected a series of contracts in the last quarter of the 19th century.