The presence of several armed groups in a conflict poses particular challenges. This publication builds on the author`s previous work, which analyzes the ceasefires negotiated in Myanmar in the 1990s and contrasts with the ceasefires negotiated after 2011 in terms of process and effect. The ceasefires of the 1990s are an interesting example of how the government conducted bilateral negotiations and then used a “divide and rule” process as a very effective instrument for conflict management. Reading 3: Haysom, N. &Hottinger, J. (2004). Lasting ceasefire agreements. Presentation of IGAD Sudan Peace Process Workshops on detailed security measures in Sudan during the transition period. Main concepts: humanitarian ceasefire: ceasefires agreed by the protagonists of an armed conflict to allow the provision of health care and humanitarian aid, such as vaccination campaigns and food supply. The author, a former combatant who served as an adviser to the peace talks in Abuja, examines the extent to which the security measures were treated only as a “technical matter”. This document is a brilliant reminder that parties to the conflict may need considerable amounts of training and coaching to fully understand the practical impact of what they commit to do and, therefore, participate effectively in peace talks. The document contrasts with this practical requirement with the lack of strategic patience that increasingly characterizes international peacebuilding and diplomacy, with the pace and criteria of a determined ceasefire/peace process often dictated by international supporters and not by the parties themselves. We urge all parties to the conflict to immediately cease all military actions, to abide by the ceasefire agreement reached in Moscow and to conduct a constructive dialogue aimed at protecting human lives and rights, preventing attacks on civilian infrastructure and places of worship and achieving lasting peace.

This manual has been used as training material in different contexts, including to support stimulation exercises organized by PILPG. It contains standard languages on the essential provisions of the ceasefire agreements. The manual should be read in light of Brickhill`s paper: It is better to train parties and help them design technical and policy solutions acceptable to them, instead of being mistaken for the perfect tool to tackle a technical vanguard enterprise.. . .